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Chinas environmental protection must be fought and protracted.

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Chinas environmental protection must be fought and protracted.

Release date:2018-04-12 The author: Click on:

Our natural environment is superior, but has the vulnerability of our country is located in east Asia, facing the Pacific Ocean, location is important, large, complex and diverse climate, warm moderate, humid same, superior natural environment and development of the ancient Chinese civilization, but also we are now on the material basis for the socialist construction.


China's climate is divided into the eastern monsoon region, the northwest inland arid region, and the southwest qinghai-tibet basket area. The eastern monsoon region seasonal variation and the annual precipitation change are big, drought and flood disaster frequency is very high, plus the terrain ups and downs in our country is larger, prone to soil erosion, northwest inland area drought less rain and wind erosion is serious, desert. The high principle of the southwest qinghai-tibet is the basket area, the freeze-thaw erosion is very strong.


Our country is mountainous and mountainous area, 65% above area is hilly hill, the plain is relatively small, more than one third of the land is desert area. China's land surface is the largest in the world.


The dual causes of climate and topography make our country's natural situation have obvious fragility. The vulnerability of natural environment increases the difficulty of economic activities in our country and raises the production cost. After calculation, the expansion of the world's ecological environment relative to the average cost of 1, 1.25 in China, the production cost 25% hills per ha, specific relative development cost is as follows: agricultural development costs (China: world industrial development cost (Chinese: world) infrastructure costs (Chinese: world) cost of soil erosion (China: the cost of ecological restoration (Chinese: the world mining development cost (Chinese: world) : 1 frequency of natural disasters (Chinese: world) 1.18:1 forestry development cost (Chinese: world) 1.02: 1 2 development has a long history and more ecological debt in our country is one of the world's ancient civilizations, has a history of ten thousand years, farming cultivation of rice, soybean, tea, silkworms and so on, also poses a great damage to natural ecological, therefore civilization centre in the sui and tang dynasties in China from the Yellow River basin migrated to the Yangtze river basin, the Ming Great Wall is better than the Great Wall of qin and han dynasties south back more than 500 kilometers. After the opium war, after being beaten and beaten, our country not only suffered from economic decline, but also suffered from worsening ecological environment and deteriorating ecological environment. In China's liberation, the forest coverage rate is less than 10%, and soil and water loss is very serious. The main rivers such as the Yellow River, haihe river and Yangtze river are frequently flooded, and the area of desertification is large.


3 large population, natural resources per capita is less land in our country is vast, rich resources, all kinds of resources are ranked among the top of the world total, total natural resources after the former Soviet union and the United States, the world third.


Overall abundance in China's major natural resources in the table 1 (100) for the project of China in the former Soviet union the United States Canada Australia India Brazil farmland and garden product permanent grassland area forest runoff amount accumulative total cost of the energy mineral resources development water percentile note: data from manual of natural resources in China, 1990 China's large population, is now close to 1.3 billion people, first in the world, and natural resources per capita is greatly reduced, after nearly all kinds of natural resources per capita in the world.


Table 2 per capita resource projects compared with some countries in the world the world's average Chinese Soviet Canada America Brazil Australia India China's share of the world average of land area (ha) (ha) permanent grassland area of arable land and garden plot area (ha) of forest and forest land area of the world's average duration of table 2 (ha) project in China in the former Soviet union Canada America Brazil Australia India China's share of the world average forest volume (cubic meters) river runoff (cubic meters) to develop water power (kw) of mineral reserves value ($) note: The data source is from China natural resources manual 1990 2000 China's per capita natural resources is lower than 1990. China's per capita natural resources are less, increasing the pressure on the environment, bringing environmental pollution and ecological destruction both serious dual problems.


4 large-scale industrialization, urbanization has brought great impact on the environment and China is experiencing large-scale industrialization and urbanization. Due to its large population, China is the largest industrialized and urbanized country in human history. At present, China's urbanization population is nearly 30%. If the minimum standard of urbanization is 50 percent, about 260 million people will be transformed from rural population to urban population, which is equal to the total population of the United States. If the per capita industrial output of our country reaches the level of the United States, then our total industrial output value will exceed the total industrial output value of the current world. In conclusion, China's large-scale industrialization and urbanization will bring great impact on environmental resources.


At present, China's large-scale economic activities are moving on the surface of the earth, carrying 391 million tons of rock soil, with an average of 32 tons per person and 0.26 times of the world average. The present soil erosion area of 367 square kilometers, accounting for 38% of the land area, the water erosion area of 179 square kilometers, the wind erosion area of 180 square kilometers, direct economic losses of more than tens of billions of dollars. In 1997, the Yellow River broke down 226 days, the Yangtze river floods in 1998, and the northern sandstorm in the spring of 2000 dozens of times, these ecological destruction brought adverse effects on China's modernization construction.


Table 3 in China each year the number of handling, migration of rock and soil in China each year the number of handling, migration of rock and soil (one hundred million tons) of agricultural production activity in animal husbandry production and forestry production activities of mining production activities quarrying total production infrastructure construction of city construction through long-term efforts, our country environment pollution total amount has declined, the main pollutants in 1995 than in 2000 fell 1015%, but the amount of pollutant emission in China is very big still, in 2000 our country because of the burning of oil, coal, natural gas and other emissions into the atmosphere of S02 19.951 million tons (the first) in the world, A total of 1165 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions, 415.2 million tons of sewage discharge and 1.7 million square kilometers of acid rain, some of the major cities have the highest air pollution in the world. Although the emission of these pollutants is relatively low, the total amount is very large and has had a great impact on the environmental quality of China. According to calculations by the world bank, direct losses in 1995 were calculated at a willingness to pay $539.9 billion, at a human capital valuation of $24,288 million.


Table 4 economic losses of air and water pollution in China (source: Problem of the world bank) willingness to pay (WTP value human capital valuation of urban atmospheric pollution early death sick days of restricted activity of chronic bronchitis is ibr other health effects of indoor air pollution early death ill lead pollution (children) water pollution medical expenses agriculture and fisheries loss affected by shortages of acid rain water crops and forest ecosystem damage material loses a total of five China's current economic and technological level is still relatively low, not enough support for environmental protection of our country is a developing country, economic and technical foundation is weak, the liberation of industry lags far behind not only the western developed countries, even as India, science and technology gap is very big also. After fifty years of construction, the economy and technology have developed greatly, but per capita GNP is still only $800, and there is still a significant gap between science and technology and developed countries. Therefore, the resources and energy consumption of China's industrial products are far higher than that of developed countries, for example, the energy consumption of our unit GNP is four times that of the United States and eight times that of Japan. On the other hand, China's industrial output of industrial output is far higher than that of developed countries. Our country is trying to change that by raising the level of science and technology and investing in it, but it will take a long time to fundamentally change.


- some environmental problems will gradually outstanding new products along with the development of social economy, our country has or will produce some new environmental problems, such as: with the development of nuclear power, radioactive pollution problem may be gradually prominent; With the development of bioengineering technology, ecological security problems will become increasingly prominent. These new environmental problems will also make China's environmental protection more complex and arduous, and more long-term.


7 conclusion to sum up, a lot of pressure of resources and environment in our country, environmental pollution and ecological damage is very serious, the environmental protection has a long-term and arduous, the difficulty is one of the biggest in the world, although our country environmental protection and made remarkable achievements, recognized the environment protection in China must also be "tough and protracted war", need long-term unremitting efforts, the generations can succeed, realize sustainable development.



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